General Description

A fie sprinkler system is an active fie protection method, consisting of a water supply system, providing adequate pressure and
flowrate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fie sprinklers are connected. Although historically only used in factories
and large commercial buildings, systems for homes and small buildings are now available at a cost-effective price. Fire sprinkler
systems are extensively used worldwide, with over 40 million sprinkler heads fited each year. In buildings completely protected by
fie sprinkler systems, over 96% of fies were controlled by fie sprinklers alone.

Sprinkler System Types

1. Wet Pipe Sprinkler Systems
2. Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems
3. Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems
4. Deluge Sprinkler Systems
5. Dry Pipe Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems
6. Fixed Water Spray Systems
7. Deluge Foam Water Spray Sprinkler Systems
8. Foam Water Spray Systems

Wet pipe systems
Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common type of fie sprinkler systems. They’re reliable because they are simple, composed
of only automatic sprinklers and, usually, an automatic alarm check valve. An automatic water supply provides water under pressure
to the system piping.
Dry pipe systems
Dry pipe systems should only be used in spaces in which the ambient temperature may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet
pipe system, rendering the system inoperable. In a dry pipe system, the piping is filed with maintenance air at a lower pressure than
the water supply pressure, and a large valve clapper prevents the water pressure from forcing water into the piping.

Pre-action systems
The pre-action system is similar to a dry pipe system. It has a similar valve, and in general the same pipe, fitings, alarm initiating
devices, and automatic sprinklers. In addition to the sprinkler system, however, the pre-action system incorporates a detection system
being hybrids of wet, dry, and deluge systems, depending on the exact system goal. Pre-action sprinkler systems are specialized for
use in locations where accidental activation is undesired and are usually less cost-effective than the dry pipe systems.
Deluge systems
Deluge systems are similar to pre-action systems, in most cases utilizing the same valves, pipe, fitings, alarm initiating devices,
automatic sprinklers, and detectors, although all of the sprinklers are open and do not include the heat responsive element. Spray
nozzles can be used in deluge systems instead of the open automatic sprinklers. The difference between pre-action and deluge
systems is that with the sprinklers open at all times, neither air nor water can be maintained in the piping.

Design Standard

Building and fie codes often require installation of automatic sprinklers in a building based on certain factors, such as occupancy
group, height, size of the building/fie area, and occupant load.
The design and installation criteria of a sprinkler system must follow national standards, such as the National Fire Protection
Association’s (NFPA) Pamphlet 13. Sprinklers may also be required by local ordinances or by insurance companies to reduce potential
property losses or business interruption.
If fie sprinklers aren’t explicitly mandated, the codes often make it highly advantageous to install them as an optional system by
allowing for less expensive construction types (and thus less expensive building materials), larger floor area limitations, longer egress
paths, and fewer requirements for fie-rated construction in structures protected by fie sprinklers, reducing the total building cost.

Components of an automatic fie sprinkler system

Typically, a Fire Sprinkler Systems are made up from a series of components including; Stop Valve, Alarm Valve, Fire Sprinkler (head),
Alarm Test Valve and Motorized Alarm Bell (Gong). In addition to this there are additional components that support this arrangement
including a Valve Monitor, Pressure Switch and Flow Switch, Pressure Gauge.


1. Schools
2. Care homes or places where people with any mobility issues live
3. Heritage buildings
4. Hospitals
5. The homes of very vulnerable people
6. Specialist housing
7. Residential properties over 18m in height – including student accommodation
8. Hotels, B&Bs and hostels
9. Complex and deep sub surface structures such as basements
10. Large warehouses
11. Firefihters – when we need to enter burning buildings on search and rescue operations, sprinklers signifiantly reduce the risks to fiefihters


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